Robert Warington's Aquarium Ambitions - references.
1818. School details, A Register of the Scholars Admitted Into Merchant Taylor's School, from A.D. 1562 to 1874. C. J. Robinson. 1883. Volume 2, pp 207.
Spitalfields. Tower Hamlets, London.
Taking charge of practical chemistry classes. See Early Employment page xxxii.
Daughter of the late George Jackson, a surgeon and skillful amateur mechanist, well known for his many improvements in the construction of the microscope. See Early Emplyment page xxxii.
Early employment. Journal of the Chemical Society of London, New Series, Volume VI. (Entire Series, Volume XXI.)
Also see The Jubilee of the Chemical Society of London. Record of the Proceedings together with an account of the History and Development of the Society, 1841-1891. London 1896 "Between 1839-1842 he held no official position".
1836. Spitalfields Mathematical Society. "When of age [Bowerbank], he joined the Mathematical Society of Spitalfields, and remained a member until its incorporation with the Royal Astronomical Soeciety in 1845. Obituary. James Scott Bowerbank, F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., President of the Palaeontographical Society.
A much more detailed history of the Mathematical Society of Spitalfields and Warington's contribution is given on pages 116-117 in the Record of the Proceedings together with an account of the History and Development of the Society, 1841-1891. London 1896.
Marriage and baptisms from Parish Marriage Register of Christ Church,
Educated at home – Robert Warington F.R.S. 1838-1907. "Being of delicate health, he was educated entirely at home, and learnt his first chemistry from his father." Nature 75, pp 511-512, (28 March 1907.)
1840. Chemical Society - The Jubilee of the Chemical Society of London. Record of the Proceedings together with an account of the History and Development of the Society, 1841-1891. London 1896 pp 117.
1842. United Stock. "Members of the management committee volunteered for the duties of Registrar and Steward, while the Renter Warden collected subscriptions. The committee consisted of twenty-seven members of the Society and the business of the Laboratory could legitimately be conducted by a quorum of five." pp 157.
History of medicine. The Worshipful Society of Apothecaries of London. P Hunting. Society of Apothecaries. 1998.
The business of the two stock companies being so closely related it was proposed in 1822 that a joint company would serve with greater economy and advantage: the United Sock of the Society of Apothecaries of the City of London. The background to the new arrangement was the assignment of a lease of dwellings, stables and an iron foundry, in a brick building about 50 feet square and with a central chimney rising 100 feet, had recently been used for the manufacture of ships' boilers and hearths." Ibid pp 183.
"A drug-trade was thus commenced, not by the Society of Apothecaries, but by some of its members at its hall, and their subscription and profits were their own private concern, paid to and taken from what they "general stock." Household Words. A Weekly Journal conducted by Charles Dickens. Volume XIV. July 19, 1856 – Dec 27, 1856.
"A certain number of our members were allowed to subscribe and form themselves into a body to carry on the trade. It was what they called the United stock." City of London Livery Companies Commission. Report: Volume 1. 1884.
1844. Had examined two samples of green and black tea, which were brought to him by excise officer in the year 1844. Nelson Examiner and New Zealand Chronicle. 1856, page 2.
Gosse – "On November 14, upon Bowerbank's proposition, he was elected a member of the Microscopical Society, at whose meetings he forthwith became a regular attendant." Life of P.H. Gosse. E. Gosse. 1896, p223.
"Save he was elected to the council of the Microscopical Society, and served in this capacity, he scarcely made the smallest change in the even tenor of his existence." Ibid p230.
1850. Notice of Observations on the adjustment of the relationship between the Animal and Vegetable Kingdoms, by which the vital functions of both are permanently maintained. Robert Warington. A paper read before the assembled members of the Chemical Society on the evening of the 4th March, 1850.
Mitchell to Warington letter - Warington Papers held in the archives of Rothamsted Experimental Station, Harpenden, Herts. AL5 2JQ.
Admirable balance - "That the balance of existence between animal and vegetable organisms be not disturbed or overthrown, and thus additional proof is furnished, if such were needed, of the wisdom of that Creative power that has ordered all things to work together for good." Robert Warington, On Alteration of Carbonate-of-Lime Waters. Proceedings. Royal Society of London. 1867, p189.
Also see - Robert Warington and the moral economy of the aquarium, Christopher Hamlin. Journal of the history of biology. Spring 1986.
1852. Edinburgh Journal July - July 10th. 1852, No 443.
Annals & Magazine of Natural History. - Observations on the Natural History of the Water-snail and Fish kept in a confined and limited portion of Water.
"It does offer a means of research which should develop some most interesting and important results, and that the same principle is capable of being extended to a much larger scale; a demonstration of which I believe will be very speedily exhibited." Robert Warington. Vol.10. No.58. Oct. p273-280.
"Priority of publication is universally acknowledged to give a title to whatever honour attaches to a new discovery, and this I shall not dispute with Mr. Warington. I may be permitted to state, however, that I have for some considerable time been pursuing experiments on the same subject". On keeping marine animals and Plants alive in unchanged Sea-water, P. H. Gosse, A.L.S. Vol.10. No.58. Oct. p263-268
Gosse - Warington letter. "As we are engaged in the same investigations I think you will pardon the freedom of my addressing you. Can I assist you in prosecuting your experiments, the extreme interest of which and your ability in pursuing them are absolutely shown in your most valuable communication". Archives of Rothamsted Experimental Station, Harpenden, Herts. AL5 2JQ. Read letter
Gosse's visits and specimen jars – The dates of Gosse's visits and the receiving of specimen jars are taken from the Warington Papers held in the archives of Rothamsted Experimental Station, Harpenden, Herts. AL5 2JQ.
1853. Warington letter - "Since this period I have received from Mr. Gosse, and several friends, numerous additional subjects to experiment with, which have passed through the trying period of winter with complete success". Cover of Zoologist, April 1853. Read the letter.
Opening Regent's Park Aquariums - "Mr. Robt. Warrington, of the Apothecaries Hall, published in the Quarterly Journal of the Chemical Society, vo1. 3, p. 52, and in the Garden Companion, vol. 1, p. 7, in which he details experiments made by himself on the keeping up the balance between the carbonic acid for the plant, and oxygen for the animal" Southern Times June 18th, 1853.
Inventor of marine aquarium – "There was no sort of rivalry between these earnest and amiable investigators, but a little later on, when the aquarium had become a fashionable thing, Philip Gosse was accustomed to say that if it was needful to dispute about an invention which was virtually simultaneous, it might be said that Warington had invented the vivarium and he the marine aquarium. Life of PH Gosse FRS. E. Gosse. 1890 p244.
Letter from William Thompson – "I hesitate very much as to the propriety of according to Mr Gosse any honour for the originality of his paper in the Annals for October 1852." (On keeping marine animals and plants alive in un-changed seawater). Warington Papers held in the archives of Rothamsted Experimental Station, Harpenden, Herts. AL5 2JQ.
Annals & Magazine of Natural History.
On Preserving the Balance between the Animal and Vegetable Organisms in Sea Water. Robert Warington. 1853. Vol. 12; No.71; p319-324.
On Marine Vivaria. 1853 Vo. 12 No. 65, pp382.
Observations on the Natural History and Habits of the Common Prawn, Palaemon serratus. Robert Warington. Vol. 15; No.88; p247-252.
Dispute over factitious seawater. Also see "The Warington-Gosse aquarium controversy: two unrecorded letters" W. H. Brock. Archives of Natural History. (1991) 18 (2): 179-183.
Disputed History - If there has been no open controversy, there has been a good deal of latent feeling on the subject of the invention of collections of plants and animals in water. The subject has not appeared to me to be one of so great interest as to demand original research, and I shall therefore speak of the history as far as my own memory serves me. To whomsoever credit may be given for perfecting these arrangements.
The Aquavivarium. E. Lankester. 1856. Preface.
1854. Annals & Magazine of Natural History.
Memoranda of Observations made in small Aquaria, in which the Balance between the Animal and Vegetable Organisms was permanently maintained. Robert Warington. 1854. Vol. 14; No. 81; p366-373.
On Artificial Sea Water. Robert Warington. 1854. Annals & Magazine of Natural History. Vol. 14; No. 84; p419-421.
Dr. E. Schweitzer – A chemist in Brighton who sold the salts of evaporated seawater for medicinal use. Advertisement. Archives, Rothamsted Experimental Station, Harpenden, Herts. AL5 2JQ.
Zoologist - On the Injurious Effects of an Excess or Want of Heat and Light on the Aquarium. Robert Warington. Zoologist. Vol. 14; p4960-61.
1855. Observation on the Habits of the Stickleback (being a continuation of a previous paper). Robert Warington. Annals & Magazine of Natural History. Vol. 16; No.95; p 330-332.
Adulteration of food. The first sitting of the Committee took place on the 13th July. Report of the Select committee of the House of Commons on the Adulteration of Food. No:II.
Mr Warington states, in his evidence before the Parliamentary Committee – Food and its adulterations. Pages, 349; 467; 564. Also see page 104 for tea. Adulterations Detected; or, plain instructions for the Discovery of Frauds in Food and Medicine. By Arthur Hill Hassall M.D. 1857.
1857. On The Aquarium: being the Substance of a Discourse delivered by Robert Warington, Esq., at the Royal Institute of Great Britain, on Friday, March 27th 1857.
1862-67. Mr Warington was a Juror; winter at Hastings, Worthing, Budliegh Salterton. Proceedings at the Meetings of the Chemical Society. Anniversary Meeting, March 30th, 1868. Page xxxii.
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