The Seaside Years of Philip Henry Gosse - references.

Journals –
1. Annals & Magazine of Natural History.
On the Sloughing of the Spider-Crab (Maia Squinade) No.57, Sept. 1852, p210-213. Notes on some new or little-known Marine Animals. 1; No. 68, Aug. 1853, p124-129. 2; No 69. Sept. 1853, p153-159. 3; No.72. Dec. 1853, p384-385. On the Growth of Sea-Weeds. No. 78. June. 1854, p488-491. On Manufactured Sea Water for the Aquarium. No. 79. July. 1854, p65-66. Descriptions of three new species of British Actiniæ. No.82. Oct. 1854, p280-283. On Artificial Sea Water. No 85. Jan. 1855, p17-19. On Monopus medusicola, a species of Leech. No. 88 April. 1855, p227. Notes on some new or little-known Marine Animals. 1; No.91. July. 1855, p27-35. 2; No. 95. Nov. 1855, p305-312.

2. Home Friend.
Sea-side Pleasures. 1; No. 14, p313-320. 2; No. 17, p385-394. 3; No.?,p520-525. 3 Cont; No?, p538-542. 3 Cont; No. 24, p 553-558. 3 Cont; No. 27, p14-18. The Valley of Rocks. No. 31,p?. 2; No.?, p?.

3. Zoologist.
Capture of the Sun-Fish (Orthagoriscus Mola) at Ilfracombe. Vol. 10, Sept. p3579-80. Notes on the Habits of Sepiola vulgaris. Vol. 11. June, 1853, p3916. Occurrence of Eolis Landsburgii at Weymouth. Vol. 11. Aug. 1853, p?. A List of Marine Animals obtained at Weymouth. Vol. 12. July. 1854 p4368-69

4. Midland Naturalist .
A Marine Aquarium. Vol. 2. 1879, p 1-6. Letter read to the Birmingham Natural History and Microscopical Society, describing the aquarium Lloyd installed at Sandhurst.

5. The Pembrokeshire historian journal of the Pembrokeshire Local History Society.
Victorian Naturalist in Tenby. No. 7 (1981), p. 16-23. (Available online.)


Edinburgh University Library; Gosse. P.H. Letters. Ref-La II. 425/22. To W.A. Lloyd.
1. June 26th 1856 - I forward you some more circulars. Please use them bona-fide not wastefully as I have but few left.
2. July 2nd 1856 - I am sure it is unintentionally that you have done what is not quite the honourable thing in the Zoologist.
3. July 7th 1856 - I am glad to hear that your business is doing well; of course you find the struggle hard until you can get beyond the present expense of moving and fitting up.
4. July 16th 1856 - The new edition will not appear till these are gone; if you would like to take any I will say how many, I will send you them; together with your pocket knife, which you left here.
5. Tenby September 15th 1856 - Will you please send to the address of Mrs Thomas Avery, Highgate, Birmingham, a seasoned rectangular tank ready for use. 24 inches long, 16 inches wide, 12 or 14 inches high, or as near those dimensions as you have one.
6. Tenby September 19th 1856 - As to my sending you supplies of actinia, you seem to forget that I do not carry on the business of a collector, and I hope you will excuse my saying, that your impropriety is not quite agreeable. There are plenty of places in the vicinity, which are rich enough and quite un-visited, but I should be very sorry to see Tenby and its caves robbed of their actinia.
7. Tenby 29th September 1856 - I have succeeded in making an arrangement with a person named Mr. Jenkins, Dealer in shells, Tenby, on your behalf. I expect to return on Thursday next; and shall be obliged if you can send to my home in Huntington Street a small cask (about 10 gallons) of real Seawater on Friday morning, which I will pay you for when I see you.
8. December 6th 1856 - It is strange, but you also forgot to give me a receipt for the 1/9 I laid out with you at the same time, which your brother was perhaps not aware of, who would, I daresay, have reminded you of it.
9. December 26th 1856 - I want to call on you and have a look at your stock, - that of the large Echinoderm tank in particular, and hope to do so in a few days.
10. January 28th 1857. Sandhurst - I have not the slightest objection to the union of your Starfish- crest with my advert. But let me mention a trifle which for your own reputation sake, you should alter; "fragilissima" you have wrongly spelled "fragillissima" with two "ll's". It is the super latin of "fragilis"; and should have but a single "l".
11. 28th February 1857 - I will send our courier (Shelton), with an order, on Tuesday morning - I hope to be in London myself on that day, and will endeavour to call about 1 or 2 o'clock, as I want to ask some questions about light and temperature.
12. March 8th 1857 Torquay - I keep now crassicornis successfully, and have specimens which I have had a long while. We naturally look to you to correct us on these points.
13. March 12th 1857 - Mr Gosse hopes to call tomorrow (Friday about 10 o'clock) upon Mr. Lloyd to ask one or two questions about the aquariums.
14. March 31st 1857 - I am glad to hear of your prosperity; I hope you will sometimes find leisure to remember there is a world beyond this.
15. 1st June 1857 - Please give Mr. Lloyd two of the inclosed chrysanthellums with my complements (if he is alive, for he never thinks including a written line); and keep the rest of the contents yourself.
16. Tuesday, 1st June - There is another coryata on the left of Chyloclodia, I don't think you'll find 'em crushed this time.
17. September 9th 1857. 58 Huntington Street - I was in hopes I might come to see you again, before leaving, but I yesterday put my knee out again, I am a close prisoner. I expect to leave in a little more than a week, but wish to get everything of business done this week.
18. September 11th 1857 - I sent 13 Handbooks last time; so it is now 12 to the dozen.
19. 12 October 1857. Sandhurst, Marychurch - I beg leave to remind you that this is the day agreed on for of the last lot of books as inclosed. I shall therefore be obliged by your forwarding me your cheque for the amount, as soon as convenient, as I rather need it. I have not yet been down to the shore, on account of my knee, which is however gaining strength.
20. December 10th 1857. Marychurch - I have put the originals for plates 1 and 2 to Dickes hands (5 Old Fish Street, Doctor's Commons); if ever you or Mr. Holdsworth were passing that way, I would look in. I have descended him to show you the drawings. You would feel an interest in them; - if not quite a fatherly interest, a sort of uncle's regard. I told Mr. Dickes to, that I am sure you and Mrs. Lloyd would give him every facility in studying the living animal in your Aquaria, before he begins to engrave.
21. Dec 31st 1857 - Thanks for the curious note about Dianthus's, if you can tell me any more about it, pray do at once, as I am soon about to send the history of that species to the printer. Pray let Holdworth see it.
22. Jan 6th 1858. Torquay - On the shore I have got two or three Astesinas. At first I said to myself, as I have so few, they are not worth saving; but then I thought that perhaps they may be worth you accepting, and therefore here they are
23. March 9th 1858. Sandhurst - I will willingly go over your proof list, and make the alterations you name. There are not many. Thanks for the promise of Gemmacea, as to Clavata, I have the dull ashy one, but the waxy white I shall be glad to see.
24. 4th May 1858. Sandhurst - I wrote to Heale, but fear he will not take any notice of my request, unless he can learn direct from you. Do you hear anything of business? Make my kind regards to Mrs. Lloyd, Willy is pretty well.
25. June 9th 1858. Sandhurst - And now may I (to save letter writing, communicate with Mr. Holdsworth through you. The Anemone he sent arrived but dead. I thank him for sending it.
26. July 14th 1858. Sandhurst - I forward the draft of such an advertisement as I think you ask for. Look it over, if you like it, send it at once to Clay, Broad Street Hill, to be put in type, then tell me by return of post what number of copies you will require, and I will order them.
27. August 7th 1858. Sandhurst - I am still working hard and well but I trust it will not be for nothing; you have the business in your own hand, I am laying the foundation broad and deep, hope on; hope ever.
28. August 10th 1858. Sandhurst - You are quite welcome to insert your two paragraphs except that the final paragraph for P.48 is superfluous and irrelevant. Of course, my opinion about the form of a tank does not affect any zoological authority; how should it? I adhere, however, to my opinion that the tank which I got from Treggon is ugly and unsuitable for observation, I do not use it, it lies as useless lumber in a spare room.
29. September 2nd 1858. Sandhurst - I forward you in stamps 7/- the amount of my account with you. Have you yet sent out your lists?
30. September 7th 1858 - I don't know what you mean by "this B. thallia is a portrait of my only specimen" drawn by Mr. H." The two figures in my Plate 4 were drawn from my Tenby specimens 4 years ago. Where came yours? I like to hear of your success on breeding new things, may your cuttle-babies grow and prosper.
31. October 1st 1858 - Accept my best thanks for the interesting Cerianthus. For a while the tube looked flaccid and no sign of life appeared, but this beautiful face now peeps out and blossoms charmingly.
32. November 24th 1858. Sandhurst - I am glad to hear of the increasing circulation of Actinologia Britannica, but when I last heard from Van Voorst (about a month ago) the sale of even Part 1, scarcely exceeded 400, and the others much less.!
33. 2nd December. 1858 - Pray do not make me the bearer of the Cerianthis to Miss Pritchard. That lady lives in a village nearly two miles away, and I never have occasion to go there. I have no one to send without inconvenience. Better post it or send to her.
34. 4th December. 1858 - In great haste I acknowledge with thanks the two little, but pretty Cerianthis. One of them I have sent off by special messenger to Miss Pritchards.
35. 15th December 1858. Sandhurst - Will you kindly say before I can reply to your proposal, what number of each part of Actinologia you are selling.
36. Will "Le Empereur" allow his slaves to dabble in anything so English as Aquariums.
37. August 30th 1859 Sandhurst - My residence is at some distance from the sea, and I very seldom go down now. But if I do have an opportunity of making the experiment you wish I will endeavour to do so.
38. October 19th 1859. Sandhurst - When you ordered the last lot of books from me, it was expressly engaged that the payment should be made on the 12th instant. I have business relations with you, I expect you to be a man of your word.
39. September 3rd 1860. Sandhurst - Before I go to so great an expense in printing circulars, I would like to know what effect has been produced by the former.

Leeds University, Brotherton Collection. Gosse letters to Kingsley; 1853-18
1. Weymouth, July 28th. 1853. Many avocations have prevented my before acknowledging your very kind letter of this day week; but the flattering manner in which you speak of my works would give an appearance of un-courteousness to a longer silence, which is very far from my feelings. Probably we may spend the coming autumn and winter there, either at Ilfracombe, or at a place which you so strongly recommend, Clovelly. How pleasant it would be to have such a companion as yourself in the investigation of those prolific shores! My residence here for the last four months has been devoted to the marine aquarium at the Zoological Gardens. I proposed my scheme to the Society, who are accepted it and I have been sending to London this summer nearly 4000 living animals and plants. Of course many rarities and some novelties have occurred in such an amount of dredging and trawling as this involved. Be assured my dear sir I shall redeem it a favour and a privilege to continue the correspondence you have commenced.
2. December23rd1853 - Your very kind letter was received by me yesterday through Mr Van Voorst. It gives me much pleasure to find that you are residing in so choice a vicinity, for I am sure you will find it very rich in marine Zoology. For your very polite offer to send me up specimens I return my most hearty thanks. I had been casting about in my mind how I could establish a scientific correspondence in Torbay, and your kindness just supplies the desire. Thanks for the information about Clovelly; but we resolved to return to town, where we have just resumed settled residence. I have hear a sort of conservatory which I mean to use as an aquarium, fitting it up with several tanks and vases for marine natural history. I am engaged on a work which I think of entitling "The Aquarium" a biography of marine animals; it will be devoted to traits of the habits and becoming of such species as I keep in captivity and are little known. The note you favoured me with about the feather star is just of the kind that I delight in; if you are not intending to publish, will you permit me to use it for the embellishment of my own pages?
3. December 31st 1853 - Many thanks for your very kind courtesy, of which I avail myself by sending down a hamper of jars by this evenings train. They will be much more than needful, doubtless; but I had no whickered jar, and the expense of carriage will be scarcely more. Besides, I shall glad of the seawater. Will you kindly let the jars be nearly filled with water, (not quite) and the specimens distributed in them.
4. January 5th 1854 - I snatch a moment from the gratification of gazing at the splendid treasures of the deep, and treasures "hid in the sand" that you have favoured me with, to acknowledge their arrival. Will you be so good as to inform me in your next what expenses you have incurred.
5. January 9th 1854 - I propose at length to write a few notes on the valuable collection of beautiful and interesting animals that I owe to your kindness. They arrived in good condition about 2pm on Thursday, the fifth inst; which considering the state of the roads was more than could have been expected. I shall go through the list, enumerating them "as far" as I have been able to make them out.
6. February 2. 1854 - If you have the wind as we have, this moderate off-shore breeze will give you a good days dredging today. I hope by the time I finish this note you will be safe home with a rich harvest of spoils, and that I shall see something good on Saturday. But indeed if you get no more than you have already told me of, I shall have a good fortnights work cut out, in examining the treasures and hope you will not forget cornatula. Please to express my thanks to your dear little boy for the specimens he has found for me, and for the zeal with which all the family have engaged in the search. May I venture also to offer my respectful thanks to your lady for her kind cooperation also. It is a grand gala day for Mrs Gosse as well as myself, when we get an opportunity of examining a consignment from the sea; such an array of pans and bowls, of vases and tubs comes out, and the whole house is on the tiptoe of expectation.
7. February 5. 1854 - I beg to thank Mrs Kingsley for her note received on Saturday, announcing the coming consignments, and yourself for the great trouble you have had in procuring them for me and sending them. They did not arrive, through the negligence of the Railway people, until after 6pm on Saturday evening whether from the long confinement, or the cold weather, I know not, but many of them were greatly exhausted, some already stone dead, and others in articinlo mortis. May I beg the favour of your informing me the amount of expense which you have incurred on my behalf, from first to last. I shall feel it an additional obligation if you will be so good as to mention this in your next letter.
8. 30th March 1854 - It was with great pleasure that I saw your familiar handwriting; for I had begun to fear you had given me up as a bad customer. I propose to send you the hamper of jars tomorrow; will you be so good as to send out your man to do a days dredging for me; not to go, however, until there appears a really promising day. I am pressing my book hard to get it out by the first week in May. I propose to entitle it, The Aquarium; an Unveiling of the Wonders of the Deep Sea.
9. 4. April. 1854 - The little basket has just arrived safely, and the zoophytes appear quite well in there bed of wet sand. The five Actinia Chrysanthemum are noble fellows indeed; one or two are protruding a little of the convoluted filaments, through the skin, but for the most part they are "sound in wind and limb" I observe the activity of which you speak, an unwanted vivacity; they shall all have opportunity of burrowing, now that we know their habitat. I have established one tank I think beyond fear. With a second I have had failures, but hope yet to succeed with it, and with a third that I have had prepared, besides smaller vessels. My book is now finished as far as my work is concerned; and I hope to have it out by the first week in May. I entitle it, - The Aquarium: An Unveiling of the Wonders of the Deep Sea."
10. April 15th 1854 - My one small continues to thrive beautifully; everything seems quite "acclimatised" and as comfortable as possible; I have not had a death for a long time, in it. I will tell you a thing I am not a little proud of. I am almost sure several species of Red weed that I brought up from the coast last autumn are beginning to shoot out young sprouts. In a day or two I shall be more sure. But if is so, I shall have accomplished what has never been done yet. The green algae grow readily but the red (Rhodospermeae) have always been obstinate. At the Zool. Gardens where the greens grow well, they tell me they do not take the trouble to put the reds into the tanks, when them receive any; such has been their ill success.
11. April 24. 1854 - As I received nothing from you last week I conclude that you did not find it convenient to send back the hamper so soon. My intended journey I have deferred; and therefore am at liberty to receive at any time you like; - but think, as this is spring-tide week, it will be perhaps be as well to take all the advantage you can of it, and defer the consignment till the later part of the week.
12. May 30.1854 - Since I wrote to you last I have been down to Weymouth, where I had a nice day's dredging, and beautiful opportunities of littoral collecting, as the spring tides were very low. Perhaps you will favour me with a line informing me of your proceedings and prospects, as I am not sure whether you are still at Torquay. I am sorry to say my book is not yet out, though a few copies have been circulated. The getting out of the plates has caused a very vexatious delay, but the whole are in the binder's hands now, I will be ready by the end of this week or before.

Original Gosse Document Collections and Biographies Document Collections-
Inheriting his father's estate following the death of his step mother Eliza in 1900, Edmund Gosse reputedly auctioned off most of his father's possessions, including books, diaries, papers and drawings; thus putting them into the hands of private collectors. Since then, some of these have been donated to museums and university libraries.

Horniman museum London - Folio of original drawings and letters including some of the original coloured drawings sent to printers to illustrate his seaside books. (appointment to view before visiting.)
Brotherton Library, University of Leeds. A wonderful collection for the student, includes amongst other things, the collection of letters to Charles Kingsley, Gosse's "Aquarium note book" and Emily Gosse's diary.
Cambridge University Library. Collection of letters and documents.
The British Library, London. Collection of artefacts and books, donated by Jennifer Gosse. Appointment to view before visiting.

A number of Biographies of P. H. Gosse have been written over the years, the first by his son Edmund Gosse, 1849-1928, entitled - The Life of Philip Henry Gosse F.R.S . Routledge & Keegan Paul Ltd, London. 1890. It was later re-published by Heinemann as - The naturalist of the seashore: The Life of Philip Henry Gosse. I have used chapter IX of this book, Work at the Seashore 1852-1856, pp235/270, as the foundation of this site.
Father & Son , a study of two temperaments. E. Gosse. William Heinemann, London , 1907. First published anonymously, Edmund Gosse acknowledged it as his work in 1908, after it had achieved success both in England and America. The book, a controversial account of Edmunds youth and correspondence with his father when he first left home, is remembered today as his most memorable work, sadly surviving longer, and published in more languages, than any other work by either Philip or Edmund Gosse.
Philip Henry Gosse. A bibliography . R. B. Freeman & Douglas Wertheimer, 1980. Dawson & Sons , England . ISBN 0-7129-0935-4. This well researched book listing all of Gosse's published work is the result of D. Wertheimer's doctoral dissertation "Science and the Crucible" Toronto University 1977. My "Seaside Diaries" would have been impossible to compile without the assistance of this work.
Red Letter Days of my Life, Mrs Andrew (Cornelia) Crosse, 1892. Volume 2, Incidents in the life of a Naturalist, pp 64-117.
The life of Philip Henry Gosse. L. R. Croft, 2000. Elmwood Books, England. ISBN 0-946019-09-6. "Sets out to challenge Edmund Gosse's portrayal of his father." and succeeds. Not only is this a well researched and challenging book, it is also most informative of the religious aspects of Gosse's life; a topic I have chosen to ignore; including a chapter revealing "Omphalos". This, along with the lists of Important Dates, Manuscript sources and Printed Sources make it essential reading for the serious student.
Glimpses of the Wonderful. The life of Philip Henry Gosse 1810 - 1888. Ann Thwaite, 2002. Faber & Faber, London . ISBN 0-571-19328-5. An interesting and easily read book that follows her equally successful biography of Philip Gosse's son, Edmund Gosse. A literary Landscape. 1984 Martin Secker & Warburg, London. ISBN 0-436-52146-6. These two books combined, give the full story from both sides, inevitably drawing the reader to make their own conclusions about the truth of "Father and Son".
Emily Gosse. A life of faith and works. R. Boyd, 2004. Olivet Books, England. ISBN 0-9548283-0-5. From a different perspective, read the tracts and poems of Emily Gosse to gain an insight into the life and beliefs of the Gosse family.
Tell Jesus. Anna Shipton. No date. Morgan & Scott, Offices of the Christian, 12 Paternoster Buildings London. Description of her friendship with Emily Gosse.

P. H. Gosse. A Bibliography. R.B. Freeman and Douglas Wertheimer.1980. ISBN 0-7129-0935-4. A full list of all of Gosse's literary work; indispensable.

Gosse Books.
Natural History, Fishes. 1851. A Naturalist's Rambles on the Devonshire Coast. 1853. Seaside Pleasures. 1853. The Aquarium 1854. Natural History, Mollosca. 1854. A Manual of Marine Zoology, Vol. 1&2. 1855, 1856. Tenby, a seaside holiday.1856. Actinologia Britannica 1860. Romance of Natural History, 1860-1861. Land & Sea (early edition Sea & Land), 1865. A Year at the Shore, 1865.

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